We recognised surgical specialties, all of which will provide you with different challenges and rewards throughout your life. We provide information on these as well as surgery, covering the type of work involved, working conditions (on call; emergency work; clinics etc.), working options, sub-specialisation and how competitive each specialty is. The Cardiology department deals with the heart and issues relating to it. The doctors have had special training. Orthopedics & Joint Replacement branch of medicine deals with the musculoskeletal system. Tumors, spine diseases, sports injuries, etc. are treated here. Neuro & Spine Surgery department deals with identifying, diagnosing, treating and rehabilitating disorders that pertain to the brain and the nervous
A hydrocele is a disease which happens just in men. For the most part this issue supposedly occurs on account of infants just, yet a couple of men may encounter this issue at a later stage in their life too. In this condition, a watery liquid gathers around one or both the gonads, because of which the crotch or the scrotum region grows. This development of the watery liquid is, in any case, totally easy. The way that Hydrocele is anything but a hazardous illness, in this manner, Hydrocele treatment in Vellore is additionally quite basic and hazard free. The conclusion of Hydrocele should be possible just through an assessment of the scrotum. Since there is no agony or serious issue experienced by the patient, as a rule, individuals will in general leave it untreated. Nonetheless, if the torment disturbs, the growing gets humiliating or the blood flexibly to the penis gets influenced, at that point the treatment of the equivalent gets essential. The principal stage is to attempt to empty out the liquid out of the scrotum with the assistance of a needle. This is called goal. The procedure of goal ought to have picked just those men who can't experience medical procedure. For other people, it is in every case better to legitimately select medical procedure, as the odds of disease and repeat of the issue are quite high on account of desire.
The Greek word ‘ο?ρον ouron’ implies to ‘urine’ and ‘λογ?α -logia’ means the ‘study of’ which combined together refers to urology that is also known as genitourinary surgery. This is a discipline in medicine that concentrates on the medical conditions and surgical operations of the female and male urinary tract system and reproductive organs in the males. There is a close connection between the reproductive organs and the urinary tract, thus, also establishing a link between conditions that affect one or the other. Therefore, a substantial domain of the disorders that are treated and managed under urology falls under genitourinary disorders. A combination of non-surgical or medical treatments with surgical methods are typically used in treating urological conditions.
Hypospadias is a condition where the meatus isn't at the tip of the penis. Instead, the hole may be any place along the underside of the penis. The meatus (hole) is most often found near the end of the penis ("distal" position). But it may also be found from the middle of the penile shaft to the base of the penis, or even within the scrotum ("proximal" positions). Over 80% of boys with this health issue have distal hypospadias. In 15% of those cases, the penis also curves downward slightly, a condition called "chordee." When the meatus opens further down the shaft, curvature occurs in more than 50% of patients. Hypospadias is a common birth defect found in up to 1 in every 200 boys.
Hydronephrosis is the swelling of a kidney due to a build-up of urine. It happens when urine cannot drain out from the kidney to the bladder from a blockage or obstruction. Hydronephrosis can occur in one or both kidneys.
The main function of the urinary tract is to remove wastes and fluid from the body. The urinary tract has four parts: the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and urethra. The urine is formed when the kidneys filter blood and remove excess waste materials and fluid. Urine collects into a part of the kidney called the renal pelvis. From the renal pelvis, the urine travels down a narrow tube called the ureter into the bladder. The bladder slowly fills up with urine, which empties from the body through another small tube called the urethra.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is when the flow of urine goes the wrong way. This condition is more common among infants and young children. Urine, which is the liquid waste product from your body, normally flows one way. It travels down from the kidneys, then into tubes called the ureters and gets stored in your bladder. You release the urine out of your bladder when you pee. When you have VUR, the urine in your bladder goes back up to the ureter and the kidneys. This could cause infections and damage your kidneys. VUR affects about 10% of children. Although most are able to grow out of this condition, people who have severe cases may need surgery to protect their kidneys.
Vesicoureteral reflux is usually diagnosed in infants and children. The disorder increases the risk of urinary tract infections, which, if left untreated, can lead to kidney damage. Children may outgrow primary vesicoureteral reflux. Treatment, which includes medication or surgery, aims at preventing kidney damage.
The scrotum is a skin-covered sac that holds your testicles. It also contains the arteries and veins that deliver blood to the reproductive glands. A vein abnormality in the scrotum may result in a varicocele.A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. These veins are called the pampiniform plexus. A varicocele only occurs in the scrotum and is very similar to varicose veins that can occur in the leg.A varicocele can result in decreased sperm production and quality, which in some cases can lead to infertility. It can also shrink the testicles. Varicoceles are common. They can be found in 15 percent of the adult male population and around 20 percent of adolescent males. They’re more common in males aged 15 to 25.
A stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract). Also called a kidney stone. The stones themselves are called renal caluli. The word "calculus" (plural: calculi) is the Latin word for pebble.Renal stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones occur in 1 in 20 people at some time in their life. The development of the stones is related to decreased urine volume or increased excretion of stone-forming components such as calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate.
Bladder stones are hard crystal masses formed by minerals and protein that are found in urine. The stones are also called bladder calculi. Stones can form in any of the organs that make up the urinary system. Bladder stones form in the bladder, which holds urine.
Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported with the association of torsion in surgical specimens, and the published data remain scant on the association of torsion with testicular tumors. By retrospective medical record review, we identified 32 patients who had been diagnosed with testicular torsion, 20 of whom had undergone orchiectomy. Of these 20 patients, 2 were diagnosed with a malignancy. Our study, the largest case series to date, has shown an association between testicular torsion and testicular cancer of 6.4%.
Testicular torsion is considered a clinical emergency. It occurs when a testicle rotates, twisting the spermatic cord that brings blood to the scrotum. Without intervention, the testes becomes ischemic with eventual testicular loss.
Neuroblastoma most commonly starts in the tissue of the adrenal glands, the triangular glands on top of the kidneys that make hormones that control heart rate, blood pressure, and other important functions. Like other cancers, neuroblastoma can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, skin, liver, and bones. In a few cases, the tendency to get this type of cancer can be passed down from a parent to a child (called the familial type). But most cases of neuroblastoma (98%) are not inherited (called the sporadic type). It happens almost exclusively in infants and children, and is slightly more common in boys than in girls.
The sexual organs of males and females develop from the same fetal tissue. The same tissue that becomes a penis in a male becomes a clitoris in a female. The main factor controlling the next step is male hormones. The presence of male sex hormones causes male organs to develop and the absence of male hormones causes female organs to develop. Without enough male hormones, a genetic male will develop ambiguous genitalia. Likewise, a genetic female will develop ambiguous genitalia if male hormone is present.
Ambiguous genitalia are sexual organs that aren't well formed or aren't clearly male or female. At conception, a fetus's gender is already determined based on the 23rd pair chromosome it inherited from the parents. Females have two X chromosomes and males have an X and a Y chromosome. Even though the gender is set, the fetal tissue that will eventually become the female ovaries or male testes (gonads) has not yet begun to take its form. If the hormonal process that causes that tissue to become male or female is disrupted over the following weeks, ambiguous genitalia can develop.