Urology also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis).
The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other. Thus a major spectrum of the conditions managed in urology exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders. Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions, such as urinary-tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the management of surgical conditions such as bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence.
Urological techniques include minimally invasive robotic and laparoscopic surgery, laser-assisted surgeries, and other scope-guided procedures. Urologists receive training in open and minimally invasive surgical techniques, employing real-time ultrasound guidance, fiber-optic endoscopic equipment, and various lasers in the treatment of multiple benign and malignant conditions.
The physician will perform a genital exam plus a digital rectal exam to assess the prostate. This can include sonography of the kidneys, the bladder, and/or the prostate; or an imaging scan to visualize specific organs. The urologist may recommend an ambulatory, office-based procedure.
Urology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases of the male and female urinary tract which includes kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra, testes, scrotum, penis, prostate, etc.
A urologist treats a range of conditions such as:
Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Involuntary loss of bladder control
Bladder cancer and prostate cancer
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the infection in any part of the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra). Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. Common UTI infections include acute pyelonephritis, cystitis, and urethritis.
UTI don’t cause symptoms always, but when they do they may include:
Persistent urge to urinate
A burning sensation when urinating
Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
Urine that appears cloudy
Strong smelling urine
Pelvic pain in women
Cystitis is the inflammation of the bladder caused by a bacterial infection. It most commonly affects women. There are two types of Cystitis:
Acute cystitis: It is a condition when the inflammation occurs suddenly.
Interstitial cystitis: It is a condition which affects multiple layers of bladder tissue.
In urethritis, the urethra or the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body gets inflamed and irritated. Urethritis causes pain while urinating and an increased urge to urinate. Urethritis is more common in women than in men.
The symptoms of urethritis are different in men and women which includes:
Symptoms in men
Burning sensation while urinating
Burning near the opening of the penis
Discharge from the penis
Presence of blood in the semen or urine
Symptoms in women
Frequent urge to urinate
Discomfort during urination
Burning sensation at the urethral opening
Abnormal discharge from the vagina
Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs depending on the type of the bacteria found. If the infection is not complicated then the doctor will recommend a shorter course of treatment like 2-3 days.
Following steps can help to ease the discomfort and pain caused by urinary tract infections:
Drink plenty of water, it will dilute the urine and flush out bacteria.
Avoid caffeine, alcohol, citrus juices as they can irritate your bladder which can lead to an urge to urinate.
Apply a warm compress on the abdomen to minimize bladder pressure or discomfort.
Peyronie’s disease is a non-cancerous condition that causes fibrous scar tissue that develops on the penis and causes curved, painful erections. It can prevent you from having sex or might make it difficult to maintain an erection.